Михаил Цыганов (m_tsyganov) wrote,
Михаил Цыганов
m_tsyganov

Орангутаны-4: ЛИКБЕЗ + БИБЛИОТЕКА

К теме орангутанов я начал пла-а-авненько так подходить более трех лет назад - ЗДЕСЬ и ЗДЕСЬ, - но вскоре пришлось приостановиться с писанием (но отнюдь не накоплением) до лучших времен: не хотел делать еще материалы, основываясь лишь на зоопарках, без достаточного близкого знакомства с ними в их родной среде…
Орангутаны - Рагунан

И вот сейчас, если вы читаете этот пост, то, скорее всего, эти времена настали :-) И я - если долетел, конечно - нахожусь на Центральном Калимантане примерно в 30 километрах от столицы этой индонезийской провинции Паланкарая (КАРТА), в штаб-квартире самого большого в мире проекта по реабилитации приматов - Центре программы по возвращению орангутанов в природу Ньяру-Ментенг:
Орангутаны - Рагунан

В Индонезии живут 32 вида приматов - больше, чем в любой другой стране мира. От самых маленьких в мире долгопятов, каждый из глаз которых весит больше, чем их мозг (скоро мы с ними встретимся опять - в заповеднике Танкоко на Сулавеси, а более старые посты о них см. ЗДЕСЬ), до единственного выжившего к нашему времени высшего примата Азии и единственного современного рода в подсемействе Ponginae - орангутана (в русском языке в последнее время признан и вариант написания «орангутанг», но в зоологии употребляется только старый, добрый - без никому, по сути, не нужного "г"). Они переселились на Индонезийский архипелаг, как минимум, полтора миллиона лет назад и сейчас обитают только на Калимантане (около 80% от общей численности) и Суматре.
Орангутаны - Рагунан

Высшие (они же - человекообразные) приматы не имеют хвостов, зато обладают относительно большим мозгом и крупными телами, большой продолжительностью жизни, причем - при долгом взрослении. Помимо орангутанов, к ним относятся шимпанзе, гориллы - и мы сами.
По результатам последних исследований выделяют два вида орангутанов с тремя подвидами в одном из них:
1. Борнейский орангутан (Pongo pygmaeus)
• Подвид Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus (обитает на северо-западе Борнео)
• Подвид Pongo pygmaeus morio (северо-восток острова)
• Подвид Pongo pygmaeus wurmblii (юго-запад острова)
Орангутаны на Калимантане 

2. Суматранский орангутан (Pongo abelii; в целом, более стройные и соответственно легкие тела; более легкий, плотный и длинный мех; более узкие лица).
Ранее на Калимантане признавалось существование лишь одного вида: орангутана обыкновенного (Pongo pygmaeus) с подвидами борнейский орангутан (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) и суматранский орангутан (Pongo pygmaeus abelii).
Орангутаны - Рагунан 

К вымершим родам относятся трехметровые гигантопитеки (Gigantopithecus) нынешних Китая, Индии и Вьетнама, сивапитеки (Sivapithecus) Индии и Пакистана и корапитеки (Khoratpithecus piriyai) Таиланда. Исследования ДНК показали, что вид Pongo откололся 11-14 млн лет назад (гориллы - 7 млн.; шимпанзе-хомо - 6 млн.

Вот с орангутанами острова Калимантан (который Индонезия делит с Малайзией и Брунеем) я как раз и намерен познакомиться поближе
Орангутаны - Рагунан

Прежде чем перейти к книгам, сначала вот вам бонус:
СУМАТРАНСКИЙ ТИГРЕНОК ДЕМА ЦЕЛУЕТ ОРАНГТАНЧИКА НИА,
а ниже следует подобранная перед поездкой "библиотека" (красная галочка V означает, что часть книги можно посмотреть предварительным просмотром в Google Books, а идущая через дефис цифра - моя сугубо личная оценка на основании просмотренного по пятибалльной системе, причем "1" означает примерно - "разве что больше нечем заняться вообще):

1. ORANGUTAN Anita Ganeri 2010 - (24 стр.)
Offering fascinating insight into life in the rain forest, this book follows an orangutan through its day as it sleeps, eats, and moves.

2. THE INTIMATE APE: ORANGUTANS AND THE SECRET LIFE OF A VANISHING SPECIES - Shawn Thompson, Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson 2010 - больше об исследователях орангутнов, чем о них самих
Of all the great apes, orangutans have been the most neglected by researchers. In this remarkably empathetic book, Thompson (Letters from Prison ) sets about correcting this omission. Interweaving his own contact with the apes with the work of primatologists and veterinarians who have made studying orangutans in the forests of Borneo and Sumatra their mission, and how the unassuming orangutan—ostensibly the least compelling primate—came to demand his due. Thompson establishes the individuality of the reclusive Indonesian apes—the paralyzed but inquisitive Kiki; Kusasi, the dominant maverick; the elusive Merah, who bonds with humans over their shared affection for her baby. We also learn that they fashion a kind of leaf doll to take to bed with them, that the Sumatran subspecies are adept at making and using tools, that they communicate and analyze the intentions of others. Even if the narrative gets bogged down and buckles under the weight of detail (some of it quite dry), there is still abundant pleasure to be found in the book’s earnest and affectionate portrait of this captivating and increasingly imperiled species.

3. FACE TO FACE WITH ORANGUTANS Tim Laman, Cheryl Knott 2009 - (для школьных библиотек США)
That look in her eye is so human. She cradles her baby in her arms with such pride and tenderness. She interacts with family and peers in a way that suggests deep kinship, friendship, and trust. Meet the orangutan of Borneo in her natural habitat through the amazing adventures of National Geographic photographer Tim Laman and his wife, Harvard professor Cheryl Knott; and learn clearly the threats that now face this incredible primate.

4. ORANG-UTANS: BEHAVIOUR, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION Junaidi Payne, J. Cede Prudente 2008 V-4 (хороший раздел про леса и торф)

5. THINKERS OF THE JUNGLE Gerd Schuster, Willie Smits, Jay Ullal 2008 - (Чей-то отзыв: ..."sometimes this feels like a "save the children" commercial"…)
A swimming orangutan is seen for the very first time in world-exclusive photos, although research still assumes that great apes cannot swim. Orangutans are shown angling with sticks; this form of tool use was unknown until now. Jay Ullal’s photos are simply the best to be found in this field. Almost ten thousand photos were shot during five trips to Borneo and Sumatra, including 40 world-exclusive gems. These, and hundreds of other photos, are contained in this book.

6. ORANGUTAN David Orme 2005 - 48 стр.
Why are orangutans orange? What are the threats to orangutans in the wild? How can sanctuaries and rehabilitation centers help? In Orangutan, you will explore the life of a magnificent primate that is very closely related to humans. Find out what orangutans like to eat and discover how they learn. Read about why their numbers have been declining so quickly in recent decades. See how people are destroying the orangutan's rain forest habitat. Learn about ecotourism and explore how it can help secure the future of the orangutan.

7. THE RED APE: ORANGUTANS AND HUMAN ORIGINS Jeffrey H. Schwartz 2005 - очень интересно, но не бесспорно
Anthropologist Jeffrey Schwartz advances his controversial but remarkably insightful theory that our closest living relatives are orangutans, not chimpanzees or other African apes

8. AMONG ORANGUTANS: RED APES AND THE RISE OF HUMAN CULTURE Carel van Schaik 2004  (достал на индонезийском) (UPD: прочитал. 5+ - и никак не менее!) 
Орангутан: Шайк
The local people know him as the "Man of the Forest," who refused to speak for fear of being put to work. And indeed the bear-like Sumatran orangutan, with his moon face, lanky arms, and shaggy red hair, does seem uncannily human; one of our closest relatives in the animal kingdom, the orangutan may have much to tell us about the origins of human intelligence, technology, and culture. In this book one of the world's leading experts on Sumatran orangutans, working in collaboration with nature photographer Perry van Duijnhoven, takes us deep into the disappearing world of these captivating primates.
In a narrative that is part adventure, part field journal, part call to conscience, Carel van Schaik introduces us to the colorful characters and complex lives of the orangutans who inhabit the vanishing forests of Sumatra. In compelling words and pictures, we come to know the personalities and temperaments of our primate cousins as they go about their days: building double-decker tree nests; using leaves as napkins, gloves, rain hats, and blankets, and sticks as backscratchers and probes; nurturing their infants longer and more intensely than any other nonhuman mammal. Here are the births and deaths, the first use of a tool, the defeat of a rival, the gradual loss of influence that, while fascinating to observe, may also help us to reconstruct human evolution.

9. ORANGUTANS Patricia L. Miller-Schroeder 2004 V-3 (для начальной школы)

10. ORANGUTANS: WIZARDS OF THE RAIN FOREST Anne E. Russon 2004 -
Can orangutans be called intelligent? And are they doomed? Russon, a psychologist at the University of Toronto, spent 10 years in Indonesia among these mellow and ruddy great apes, seeking definitive answers to the first question; her book touches inevitably on the second. Orangutans live in the forests of Borneo and Sumatra, where they "eat, rest, travel and occasionally socialize." Orangs, "reflective, meticulous and orderly" (at least compared to chimpanzees), can take 12 years to grow up and live to age 60. They're threatened by poachers, by kidnappers (who sell them as pets) and also (like most large tropical animals) by human encroachment on their habitat. Experts set up camps to care for former captives and help return them to the wild: the best-known, and during the '80s the most successful, was Camp Leakey, run by world-famous primate expert Birut Galdikas. Russon spent much time around these camps: one chapter describes the complex and enjoyable life of orangs at Camp Leakey. The soft toys and changed policies Russon introduced at another rehab center "brightened a few orangutan days." But--as we learn when Russon moves to the forest-- those orangutan days may be numbered. If Indonesia can't preserve its wilderness, these great apes will have nowhere left to live. As for braininess, orangs can learn by observation how to "make pancakes" (crack eggs in cup, add flour, mix); how to make delicious lather from soap; even how to siphon kerosene and start a barbecue. One young adult female orang "hammered nails, sawed wood, sharpened axe blades, chopped wood... blew blowgun darts, lit cigarettes.... carried parasols against the sun, and applied insect repellent to herself." If that isn't smart, what is? More than 100 color photos.

11. ORANGUTAN Edana Eckart 2003 - 24 стр.
This emergent reader series introduces children to different animals...

12. PROJECT ORANGUTAN Susan Ring 2002 V-2 (зоопарк)
Showcases the development and growth of a baby orangutan at the Memphis Zoo, discussing the zookeeper's role in its life and the natural habitat, foods, and life cycle of the animal.

13. REFLECTIONS OF EDEN: MY YEARS WITH THE ORANGUTANS OF BORNEO Birute M. F. Galdikas 2000 (UPD: прочитал. Максимум - 3+: заголовок очень точно отражает суть книги, которая посвящена, в первую очередь, годам Бируте Галдикас, и лишь во вторую - орангутанам. Главное содержание книги - как орангутаны ее любили).  
Галдикас

The riveting story of Birute Galdikas, who has spent much of her life studying orangutans. In 1971, at age 25 she began living in the remote jungles of Indonesian Borneo, where she encountered menacing poachers, blood-sucking leeches, & swarms of insects. Galdikas embarked on a quest of more than 25 years to become the foremost chronicler or orangutan life. Her first task was to forge a bond of trust, but her initial forays into their world were thwarted by territorial orangutans. Eventually, Galdikas became a surrogate member of their community. An exotic adventure, a history of vital scientific research, & the memoir of a remarkable woman.

14. THE ORANGUTANS Gisela T. Kaplan, Lesley J. Rogers 2000 - (UPD: прочитал. 5+ вне всяких сомнений)
Каплан и Роджерс
In this eye-opening book, two experts on animal communication paint a compassionate picture of the species of great apes that behaves most like us. Blending the work of other scientists with their own extensive research in orangutan behavior, Kaplan and Rogers give rare insight into the lives, and the plight, of these peaceful, intelligent creatures. They provide an amazing account of orangutan behaviors, from their remarkable mothering skills to their ways of communication. Interspersed throughout are charming tales of some of the orangutans the authors have met and befriended. The authors also discuss the uncertain fate of these gentle forest dwellers, whose jungle habitat is visibly dwindling day by day. Illustrated throughout, The Orangutans is the first book to focus entirely on these remarkable primates and their relationship to humans in the evolutionary tree.

15. THE ORANGUTAN Stuart P. Levine 2000 -
Discusses the physical characteristics, behavior, habitats, and endangered status of the orangutan.

16. OUR VANISHING RELATIVE: THE STATUS OF WILD ORANG-UTANS AT THE CLOSE OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY H. D. Rijksen, E. Meijaard 1999 V-3 (больше экология)
In the 1960s, it was believed that no more than about 4,000 orang-utans remained in the wild. Consequently, IUCN - The World Conservation Union - declared the ape an endangered species, demanding its world-wide protection. Nevertheless, the orang-utan today faces extinction because it is dependent on a rain-forest habitat that is rapidly being demolished due to human greed, and a growing human population. Rijksen was among the first to make a detailed study of the ape in the wild, emerging as an authority on orang-utan conservation. In the late 1980s he became so alarmed by local rumours of the rapid decline of wild orang-utans that he initiated the study leading to this book. Meijaard conducted the ambitious, island-spanning surveys in Borneo and Sumatra to reveal the ape's whereabouts. This is the story of their findings. It is the first comprehensive study of the ape's distribution and status based on a wealth of first-hand field data, and a frank, disturbing account of a mixture of good intentions, ignorance and greed, spelling doom for our Asian relative. Nevertheless, the authors emphasise that the orang-utan can survive. A realistic plan to save the ape, and with it thousands of unique wild animals and plants, does exist. It is the authors' hope that Our Vanishing Relative, so urgent and eloquent in its description of the deadly net of problems descending over our helpless relative, will awaken attention and empathy in order to safeguard the future of the orang-utan.

17. THE NEGLECTED APE Ronald D. Nadler 1995 V-3 (сборник шибко философических или шибко технических summary)

18. ORANG-UTANS IN BORNEO Gisela Kaplan, Lesley J. Rogers 1994 - (есть более поздняя тех же авторов)

19. THE ORANGUTAN Ruth Ashby 1994 - 60 стр.
Describes the physical characteristics, habitat, and life cycle of the orangutan, including information on why the species is threatened and what is being done to save it

20. AMONG THE ORANGUTANS: THE BIRUTE GALDIKAS STORY Evelyn Gallardo 1993 - (судя по всему, больше о Бируте Галдикас, которая и сама отлично справилась с рассказом о себе - см. выше).  
student of the renowned paleontologist Dr. Louis B. Leakey and a colleague of both Dian Fossey and Jane Goodall, Birute Galdikas is the world's foremost authority on the life and behavior of the orangutan. For more than twenty years she has lived in the jungles of Borneo, devoting her life to studying and preserving this endangered animal as well as its disappearing rain forest habitat. The informative text describes both the obstacles and adventures of Dr. Galdikas's explorations as well as her startling discoveries, and the full-color photographs brilliantly capture her life among the orangutans. Birute Galdikas is an impressive role model, and her inspiring story serves as a reminder that the future of our fragile world, as well as our understanding of it, lies in the dreams and determination of today's young naturalists.

21. ORANGUTAN Caroline Arnold, Richard Hewett 1990 - 48 стр.
Depicts the physical characteristics and behavior of the orangutan and discusses the possible future of the species.

22. ORANG-UTAN BIOLOGY Jeffrey H. Schwartz 1988 - (есть 2005 г.)
Orang-utans are a particularly important and interesting primate group because of their close evolutionary proximity to humans. Yet there is no comprehensive, single reference source covering the anatomy and morphology of these animals, their biology, or their evolution. In this unique volume, a group of internationally recognized experts and researchers review the literature and present new data on the skeletal anatomy, reproductive physiology and anatomy, neuroanatomy, behavior, evolutionary genetics, and paleontology of orangutans. It is the most thorough and comprehensive reference available on the biology and evolution of this fascinating primate group.

23. THE ORANG UTAN, ITS BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION Leobert E. M. de Boer 1982 V-2 (сборник чисто научных статей, любопытна вторая - история орангутанов в неволе)

24. ORANG-UTAN BEHAVIOR Terry Maple 1980 -

P.S. Соответственно, я несколько дней без выхода в Интернет. Так что ответы на вопросы - по возвращении в Джакарту…
Tags: book, fauna, kalimantan, park, sumatra
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